Oral supplementation allows a more accurate and tailored dose, but injectables may be preferred in several situations. Injectables are preferred in animals that are very difficult to give pills to, and in animals that need immediate relief. Once the injection is given, it is impossible to reverse its effects and side effects. With oral administration, if unwanted side effects appear, the product can be discontinued and the side effects will diminish.
Oral: Most of the injectable forms of steroids also come in a tablet form. As mentioned earlier, it is much easier to customize an individual dosing program with the tablet form. The affected animal usually begins with daily therapy for a period of three to five days, and then the dose is reduced to every other day dosing. If the animal needs to be treated for more than a couple of weeks, then the dose is halved weekly until a minimum therapeutic level can be established. The goal with all steroids is to use the minimum dose necessary to alleviate the symptoms. By taking this approach, the side effects are eliminated or reduced.
Side Effects: The potential side effects associated with steroid use in dogs are numerous. Side effects can appear with any duration or form of steroid therapy. Each animal responds differently to each type of treatment. However, the number and severity of the side effects are very closely related to dose and duration of treatment. Most of the side effects associated with minimum effective dose short-term therapy are mild and resolve once therapy stops. The most common symptoms include increased water consumption, increased urination, increased appetite (weight gain), depression, hyperactivity, panting, and diarrhea.
Long-term use has the risk of creating more permanent and severe damage. Some high dose, long term side effects include increased incidence of infections, poor hair coat and skin, immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus, adrenal suppression, and liver problems. The potential problems can be severe, however, it must be stressed that these side effects are dose dependent. Despite the potential side effects, steroids can be used effectively and safely, if a careful dosage schedule is followed. Still, because of the availability of safer yet effective therapies, steroid use is reserved until all other treatment options have been exhausted. Several studies have shown that if fatty acids and antihistamines are used concurrently with steroids that the amount of steroids needed to offer relief is greatly reduced.