Information About Addisons Disease

Information About Addisons Disease

In short, it is a condition where the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol resulting in weight loss, fatigue, anemia and other symptoms. It is a very rare but treatable condition.

Addison's Disease is named after Thomas Addison, who first described this illness. The true lesion is primary adrenal insufficiency, or poor output from the adrenal gland, a gland that produces cortisol.

When first described, it's most common cause was destruction of the adrenal cortex by tuberculosis. Today, though, it is caused most frequently by autoimmune adrenalitis.

The prevalence of this disease in Western countries is estimated at 35 to 60 per million. Common symptoms of the disease include chronic malaise, lethargy, generalized weakness, anorexia (lack of desire to eat), and weight loss. A variety of other symptoms, including salt craving, also exist but these are the most common.
Addisons Disease

Lethargic Great Dane Lethargic Great Dane

In severe cases, patients may present in Addisonian crisis (adrenal crisis) which is marked by severe hypotension and electrolyte abnormalities (sodium and potassium in particular). Treatment is with synthetic steroids e.g. dexamethasone or hydrocortisone.
If you take your dog to the vets as soon as possible with even symptoms such as:

Lethargy, Can’t jump up on the couch as normal, and no appetite

Signs are often vague at best and most owners that are close to their pets know immediately something is wrong, but they just don’t know what. Get your dog to the vets immediately and work well with the vet. There is treatment and it is successful, and, if caught in time your dog can lead a normal life.

Incoming search terms:

  • Antihistamines are most popularly used for treating allergic symptoms in dogs as they have minimum side effects They are available in two forms: sprays for topical administration and oral antihistamines Those with diphenhydramine are considered to be the

Information About Adenitis

Information About Adenitis

 

Adenitis is a general term for an inflammation of a gland or lymph node.

Sebaceous adenitis is an inflammation of the sebaceous glands in the skin. These glands normally produce sebum (skin oil, a lipid-rich secretion) which prevents drying of the skin.

Sebaceous adenitis is an autoimmune, inflammatory, skin disease of currently unknown cause. Research is currently underway to find if there is a genetic predisposition for SA, and the exact mode of inheritance remains unknown. However, it is postulated that it is an autosomal recessive acquired condition. It has no sex-predisposition. There are two expressions of this condition, one for long or double coated breeds and one for short coated breeds, both with differing presentations.

For long- or double-coated breeds such as Poodles, Akitas and Samoyeds, the condition often presents itself with silvery dandruff which adheres to the coat, hair loss (not to be confused with moulting or "blowing coat"), a dull and brittle coat, and later on skin lesions along the back and ears as well as thickened skin and a musty or rancid odour. For short-coated breeds such as Vizslas, the condition causes facial swellings, nodular skin lesions, fine dandruff which does not adhere to the coat, and a general "moth-eaten" appearance to the coat.
Adenitis

Golden Retriever with Adenitis


Weimaraner with Adenitis

Weimaraner with Adenitis


Adenitis Casts

Adenitis Casts


Allergies & Atopy 4

Oral supplementation allows a more accurate and tailored dose, but injectables may be preferred in several situations. Injectables are preferred in animals that are very difficult to give pills to, and in animals that need immediate relief. Once the injection is given, it is impossible to reverse its effects and side effects. With oral administration, if unwanted side effects appear, the product can be discontinued and the side effects will diminish.

Oral: Most of the injectable forms of steroids also come in a tablet form. As mentioned earlier, it is much easier to customize an individual dosing program with the tablet form. The affected animal usually begins with daily therapy for a period of three to five days, and then the dose is reduced to every other day dosing. If the animal needs to be treated for more than a couple of weeks, then the dose is halved weekly until a minimum therapeutic level can be established. The goal with all steroids is to use the minimum dose necessary to alleviate the symptoms. By taking this approach, the side effects are eliminated or reduced.

Side Effects: The potential side effects associated with steroid use in dogs are numerous. Side effects can appear with any duration or form of steroid therapy. Each animal responds differently to each type of treatment. However, the number and severity of the side effects are very closely related to dose and duration of treatment. Most of the side effects associated with minimum effective dose short-term therapy are mild and resolve once therapy stops. The most common symptoms include increased water consumption, increased urination, increased appetite (weight gain), depression, hyperactivity, panting, and diarrhea.

Long-term use has the risk of creating more permanent and severe damage. Some high dose, long term side effects include increased incidence of infections, poor hair coat and skin, immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus, adrenal suppression, and liver problems. The potential problems can be severe, however, it must be stressed that these side effects are dose dependent. Despite the potential side effects, steroids can be used effectively and safely, if a careful dosage schedule is followed. Still, because of the availability of safer yet effective therapies, steroid use is reserved until all other treatment options have been exhausted. Several studies have shown that if fatty acids and antihistamines are used concurrently with steroids that the amount of steroids needed to offer relief is greatly reduced.


Allergies & Atopy 3

Antihistamines

Antihistamines are widely used in both the human and animal medical fields. Most of the antihistamines used in veterinary medicine are antihistamines that were designed for and used primarily by humans. Antihistamines have been shown to be effective in controlling allergies in up to 30% of dogs and 70% of cats. When used as part of a treatment plan including fatty acids and avoidance, the percent of respondents goes much higher.

Every animal will respond differently to each of the different antihistamines. Therefore, several different antihistamines may have to be used before an effective one is found. Every antihistamine has a different dose and risk of side effects. Antihistamines should be used with veterinary guidance. Some common side effects include sedation, hyperactivity, constipation, dry mouth, and inappetence. The correct antihistamine given at the proper dose should not cause unwanted side effects. For severely itchy dogs, mild sedation may be a positive and desired side effect.

Antihistamines come in several forms including H1 and H2 blockers. While the H2 blockers (Claritin, Seldane, and Hismanal) have been shown to be very effective in treating human allergies, they have not been shown to be effective in treating canine or feline allergies, and are therefore, not recommended for pet use. There are many different H1 antihistamines available on the market, but veterinary use is usually restricted to the following.

AntihistamineTrade NamePossible Side Effects
DiphenhydramineBenadryl SedationDry mouth
HydroxyzineAtaraxSedation, no dosage for cats
ClemastinefumarateTavistSedation, dry mouth
ChlorpheniramineChlor-TrimetonLethargy, diarrh

Immunotherapy (Hyposensitization)

Immunotherapy has been described as the mainstay of treatment for canine atopy. It is indicated in animals where the avoidance of antigens is impossible, symptoms are present for more than 4 to 6 months out of the year, and fatty acids and antihistamines do not provide satisfactory results.

An animal must undergo intradermal skin testing prior to hyposensitization. After the antigens to which the animal is allergic have been identified through testing, a commercially prepared injection containing the altered antigens is injected into the dog. Depending on the type of product used, a series of weekly or monthly shots are given. The animal then becomes de-sensitized to the offending allergens. Success is as high as 80% with this treatment plan. Treatment is time consuming and requires a dedicated owner and veterinarian. I feel that this treatment is an excellent option in severe cases of atopy, especially in young dogs. This testing and treatment option is currently grossly underutilized in the veterinary profession, but is gaining in popularity. If you have an allergic pet that is not responding to conventional treatment, seriously consider this as a treatment option.

Steroids

Almost everyone out there has an opinion on steroids and many of them are bad; that is, unless they were suffering from severe itching, coughing, or pain and had to take steroids for relief, in which case, they may sing their praises. Steroids are extremely effective for relieving severe itching and inflammation. The problem is that they can have many short and long-term side effects, if not used correctly.

Steroids are usually administered in one of two forms, injectable and in tablet form. The steroids being discussed here are corticosteroids and are not the anabolic steroids used by body builders. Anabolic steroids are a completely different drug and have no application in treating animal allergies. There are many different forms of corticosteroids currently available on the market. They vary widely in their duration of activity and strength.I have seen steroids grossly abused when used as a cure-all without proper diagnosis of a condition or using other alternative treatments. At the same time, I have also seen veterinarians and owners refuse to use them to alleviate severe itching and pain when they were clearly the best choice and should have been used. Steroids are a drug, and just like any other drug, they can be misused. If used correctly, they can be as safe as any other drug that we use. The problem is that they work so well that they are often overused. Because of their potential side effects, they should be used very carefully, and at the lowest effective dose. They are usually reserved as one of the last lines of treatments, but if nothing else works, use the steroids.

Steroids have a wide range of activity and affect several different systems within the body. They are closely involved with the skin, immune, and endocrine system. The effects on the immune and endocrine system can create the widespread and multisystem side effects seen with their use.

Injectable: Injectable forms of steroids include betamethasone, dexamethasone, flumethasone, methylprednisolone, and triamcinolone. These agents are usually given intramuscularly and have between one week and six months duration depending on the product, the dose, and the individual animal.

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Allergies & Atopy

Information About Allergies & Atopy

Symptoms of allergies

Dogs with allergies may show the following symptoms:

Chewing on feet
Rubbing the face on the carpet
Scratching the body
Recurrent ear infections
Hair loss
Mutilated skin
 In reality, the dog will seldom have these signs. Instead, he will have a mild to severe itching sensation over his body and maybe a chronic ear infection.

A dog who is allergic to something will show it through skin problems and itching, i.e., pruritus. It may seem logical that if a dog is allergic to something he inhales (atopy) like certain pollen grains, he will have a runny nose; if he is allergic to something he eats (food allergy) such as beef, he may vomit; or if allergic to an insect bite (urticaria or hives), he may develop a swelling at the site of the bite.

In addition, allergic dogs will often chew on their feet until they are irritated and red (the feet are the only place dogs have sweat glands and these become inflamed with allergies). They may rub their faces on the carpet or couch, or scratch their sides and belly. Because the wax-producing glands of the ear overproduce as a response to the allergy, they get ear infections. Bacteria and yeast often "over grow" in the excessive wax and debris.

The skin lesions seen in an allergic dog are usually the result of him mutilating his skin through chewing and scratching. Sometimes there is hair loss, which can be patchy or inconsistent over the body leaving a mottled appearance. The skin itself may be dry and crusty, reddened, or oily depending on the dog. It is very common to get secondary bacterial infections of the skin due to these self-inflicted lesions. Such infections may be treated with antibiotics.
Chewing on feet

Chewing on feet



Allergies2

Allergies3

Allergens

When a dog is allergic to something, his body is reacting to certain molecules called ‘allergens.’ These allergens may come from:

  • Trees
  • Grass
  • Weed pollens
  • Fabrics such as wool or nylon
  • Rubber and plastic materials
  • Foods and food additives such as individual meats, grains, or colourings
  •  Milk products
  • House dust and dust mites
  • Flea bites

The body’s response to an allergen

The reason that all these allergens cause itchy skin is that, simplistically, when allergens are inhaled, ingested, or come in contact with the dog’s body, they cause the immune system to produce a protein referred to as IgE. This protein then fixes itself to cells called ’tissue mast cells’ that are located in the skin. When IgE attaches to these mast cells, it causes the release of various irritating chemicals such as histamine. In dogs, these chemical reactions and cell types occur in appreciable amounts only within the skin.

Genetic factors and time influence allergies

Remember that dogs must be exposed to the allergen for some time before the allergy develops. Exceptions may occur such as an allergy to insect bites, which may develop after only a few exposures. The dog’s body must learn to react to the allergen. It is a learned phenomenon of the immune system that is genetically programmed and passed from generation to generation in several breeds. Allergies are especially common in certain terriers such as the Scottish, West Highland White, Cairn, and Wire Haired Fox; Lhasa Apso; and larger breeds such as the English and Irish Setters, Retrievers, and the Dalmatian. Allergies are also well documented in the Pug, Miniature Schnauzer, and English Bulldog.

In pets, allergies usually start to develop between one and three years of age. They may start as late as age six or eight, but over 80% start earlier. To make matters worse, as the animal ages, it usually develops allergies to additional things and the response to any one allergen becomes more severe.

Diagnosing allergies

A dog who is allergic to something will show it through skin problems and itching, i.e., pruritus. It may seem logical that if a dog is allergic to something he inhales (atopy) like certain pollen grains, he will have a runny nose; if he is allergic to something he eats (food allergy) such as beef, he may vomit; or if allergic to an insect bite (urticaria or hives), he may develop a swelling at the site of the bite.
Allergy testing (intradermal or blood testing)A definitive diagnosis of an allergy and determination of exactly what the animal is allergic to can be made in two ways:

  1. Eliminating things individually from the animal’s environment until the culprit is isolated (the method most often used when food allergies are suspected)

In some instances, it may not be necessary to determine the exact allergen causing the problem. For example, a dog may start chewing his feet, scratching his sides, and rubbing his face on furniture every year for three weeks during the same month. These are often the signs of a seasonal allergy to something such as ragweed or tree pollen. In this case, the veterinarian may choose either tablets and/or a single injection that will suppress the allergy for the 3-4 weeks necessary when that allergen is in the environment. After a short treatment period, the animal is back to normal and only has to wait until the following year when he or she will be returned to the veterinarian with the same problem.

So now you know the basics of canine allergies. If you have more specific questions about the different types of allergies, how to diagnose them or treat them, we encourage you to read the other articles in this section. They provide the newest and most up-to-date information on this very common problem.

Treating allergies Avoidance

This can be a very important part of managing atopy. While it may be impossible to completely eliminate all of the offending agents, many can be reduced with minimal effort on the part of the owner. For avoidance therapy to have any benefit, the offending agents must be identified through intradermal skin testing. Avoidance is rarely a complete treatment in itself, but is used in conjunction with other treatments.

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Allergies & Atopy 2

AllergensAvoidance Suggestions
House dustKeep pets out of room several hours when vacuuming
House dust mites• Use a plastic cover over pet's bed
• Wash bedding in very hot water
• Avoid letting pets sleep on stuffed furniture
• Avoid stuffed toys
• Keep pets in uncarpeted rooms
• Run air conditioner during hot weather
Moulds• Keep pets out of basements
• Keep pets indoors when the lawn is mowed
• Avoid dusty pet foods
• Clean and disinfect humidifiers
• Use dehumidifiers
• Avoid large numbers of houseplants
Pollens• Keep dogs out of fields
• Keep grass cut short
• Rinse dog off after periods in high grass and weeds
• Keep pets indoors during periods of high pollen season

Topical therapy

Topical therapy consists of shampoos and rinses and topical anti-itch solutions. Topical therapy offers immediate, but short-term relief. I recommend bathing atopic dogs at least once every two weeks with a hypoallergenic shampoo or colloidal oatmeal shampoo. Hydrocortisone shampoos may also be used. Weekly or even twice weekly shampoos may offer increased relief for some dogs.

Topical solutions containing hydrocortisone offer some relief. They are the most practical in treating localized itching. Creams or salves are often used on the feet and between the toes and sprays are used on the abdomen or other areas with less hair. These products are very poorly absorbed into the bloodstream, and when used in moderation, do not create long-term side effects or problems associated with injectable or oral steroids. In addition, cooling salves and lotions may also be used. Care must be taken with these to ensure that they do not make the coat too greasy. Dogs may tend to lick off these preparations. After applying these preparations, it is recommended to get the dog involved in some activity to prevent him from licking the treated area.

Fatty acids

Boston terrier licking paw Fatty acids have been recommended for years to improve coat quality and shine. Recently, new research has shown that certain fatty acids – the omega-3 fatty acids – are also very beneficial in the treatment of allergies in dogs and cats. Omega-3 fatty acids work in the skin to help reduce the amount and effects of histamine and other chemicals that are released in response to allergies. Not every allergic pet responds to omega-3 fatty acids. Some pets show improvements, others have a complete cure, and others show no change after being on the omega-3 fatty acids. Most pets need to be on the omega-3 fatty acids daily for several weeks to months to notice significant improvement. Omega-3 atty acids are very safe and have very few side effects. Studies show that when omega-3 fatty acids are used in conjunction with other treatments, such as antihistamines, the use of steroids can be decreased or discontinued. Be sure to use an omega-3 fatty acid supplement derived from fish oil. Other types of fatty acids (such as omega-6 fatty acids) can actually make some allergies worse. It is often best to use the omega-3 fatty acid supplements in conjunction with a diet lower in fat.

Biotin

Biotin is one of the B vitamins. Several studies have shown that dogs suffering from dry skin, seborrhea, and dry, itchy allergic skin greatly improved when supplemented daily with biotin. Biotin is often used in combination with fatty acids to treat dogs with allergies. Biotin is very safe and there are no side effects or toxicities. Biotin may be found as a supplemental powder containing just biotin, or as a supplement such as brewers yeast, which contains other ingredients.

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Information About Bilious Vomiting Syndrome

Information About Bilious Vomiting Syndrome

Bilious vomiting syndrome in dogs is vomiting in response to bile-induced inflammation of the stomach. It is also known as reflux gastritis syndrome and duodenal-gastric reflux. Bile salts interfere with the gastric mucosal barrier, allowing acid to irritate the stomach lining and cause gastritis.
Dogs with this condition usually vomit in the morning after not eating all night. Treatment is to feed late at night. H2 blockers and antiemetics can also be used.  

 

Bilious vomiting syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, meaning that the dog is normal otherwise and no other causes of the vomiting have been found.


Information About Canine PFK

Information About Canine Phosphofructokinase

                                                                                                              PFK

Canine PFK. Canine Phosphofructokinase Deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that inhibits a spaniel’s ability to convert sugar into energy. Spaniels affected by PFK will often exhibit signs of exercise intolerance. Additionally, PFK destroys the red blood cells that deliver oxygen and remove waste throughout the spaniel’s body. This destruction of red blood cells causes the dog to become mildly or moderately anemic and also shows signs of exercise intolerance. A simple blood test by your veterinarian is all that is required to test for PFK. Results from a PFK test will yield one of three possible outcomes: normal/clear, affected, or a carrier. A spaniel that tests “Normal/Clear” indicates that s/he does not carry the PFK deficiency and cannot pass it on to his or her offspring when bred to another PFK Normal/Clear spaniel. A spaniel that tests “Affected” will show outward signs of exercise intolerance and will not be able to tolerate the physical demands placed on him/her in the field. A “Carrier” of the disease shows no outward signs of the PFK deficiency, but can pass it on to their offspring when bred. The only sure-fire way to prevent the proliferation of PFK through breeding is to test both the sire and dam prior to breeding and ensure they are both PFK Normal/Clear.
The results of the PFK test can be registered with the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA). Further information about the OFA’s Registry of PFK Deficiency in Spaniels can be obtained by contacting:

 

The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals,
2300 E. Nifong Boulevard,
Columbia, MO 65201-3856,
Phone (573) 442-0418.
Or visiting their website at http://www.offa.org/


Information All About Cataracts in Dogs

Information All About Cataracts in Dogs

Cataracts are one of the most common problems affecting the eyes of the dog. There are many different forms and causes of cataract formation. They affect all breeds and ages of dogs, but certain types show up more commonly in certain breeds. Despite the fact that they are very common, there is still a lot that we do not know about canine cataracts. The only current treatment option is surgery, but with correct patient selection the outcome is very good. This article will explain some of the different forms of cataracts including their age of onset and their treatment options.

What are cataracts? 

Illustration of eyeThe word cataract literally means 'to break down.' This breakdown refers to the disruption of the normal arrangement of the lens fibers or its capsule. This disruption results in the loss of transparency and the resultant reduction in vision. Cataracts often appear to have a white or crushed ice appearance and are found in the lens of the eye. We often get people that bring an older dog into the clinic complaining of cataract formation in their dogs' eyes. The vast majority of the time, the dog does not have cataracts, but has the much more common condition known as 'nuclear sclerosis.' Nuclear sclerosis is a normal change that occurs in the lens of older dogs. Nuclear sclerosis appears as a slight graying of the lens. It usually occurs in both eyes at the same time and occurs in most dogs over six years of age. The loss of transparency occurs because of compression of the linear fibers in the lens. The condition does not significantly affect the vision of the dog and treatment is not recommended.Nuclear sclerosis
Cataracts

Cataracts at 100%



Cataracts

Yorkshire Terrier with Cataracts in one eye

How do cataracts form?

Despite the fact that there are several different forms and causes of cataracts, they all develop in a similar fashion. The normal lens is maintained in a dehydrated state. It consists of 66% water and 33% protein. There is a complicated sodium water pump system in the lens that keeps this water/protein balance in check. When the biomechanical system in the lens is damaged, this pump system begins to fail and extra water moves into the lens. In addition, the percentage of insoluble protein increases. These changes result in the loss of transparency and cataract formation.

Age of onset

The age at which a dog develops cataracts is very important in classifying the type of cataract. The age of onset is particularly important for determining if the cataracts are the result of a hereditary trait in certain breeds of dogs.

Congenital Cataracts:

These are cataracts that are present at birth. These cataracts usually occur in both eyes. Despite the fact that the animal is born with them, they are not necessarily inherited. Infections or toxins may cause the formation of these cataracts while the puppies are still in utero. Primary congenital cataracts such as those found in Miniature Schnauzers are, however, inherited.

Developmental (Early Onset) Cataracts: Developmental cataracts are those that develop early on in life. As with congenital cataracts, they may be inherited or caused by outside sources such as trauma, diabetes mellitus, infection, or toxicity. Inherited cataracts at this age are more common in several breeds including Afghan Hounds and Standard Poodles.
Senile (Late Onset) Cataracts: The cataracts that occur in dogs over six years of age are called senile cataracts. They occur much less frequently in dogs than in humans. Nuclear sclerosis, which is not considered to be a medical problem, is often confused with cataracts at this age.

Inherited cataracts

Inherited cataracts in the dog may occur independently or in association with other ocular disease. The breeds that appear to develop inherited cataracts along with their age of onset are listed below. If a dog is diagnosed with inherited cataracts, the dog should obviously not be used for breeding because of the likelihood of perpetuating the disease in the offspring.

Breed

Age of Onset
Afghan Hound6-12 months
 American Cocker Spaniel6+ months
Boston TerrierCongenital
Chesapeake Bay Retriever1 + years
German Shepherd8 + weeks
Golden Retriever 6 + months
Labrador Retriever 6 + months
 Miniature SchnauzerCongenital or 6 + months
 Old English SheepdogCongenital
 Siberian Husky6 + months
Staffordshire Bull Terrier6 + months
 Standard Poodle1 + years
 Welsh Springer SpanielCongenital
 West Highland White TerrierCongenital

Trauma from an automobile accident, or penetration of a thorn, shotgun pellet, or other object may damage the lens and a cataract may develop. These types of cataracts usually only occur in one eye and can be treated successfully with surgical removal.The most common metabolic disorder resulting in cataract formation in the dog is diabetes mellitus. If diabetic dogs are followed for a year or more, almost all of them would develop cataracts. In diabetic dogs, the glucose concentrations in the lens increases. The extra glucose is converted into sorbitol, which causes an increase in the influx of water to the lens. The increase in water causes a breakdown of the lens fibers and a resulting cataract. Cataracts in diabetic dogs can develop extremely rapidly, if the dog is not regulated. They generally affect both eyes. Surgical removal of the lens can be successfully performed in the diabetic dog, if the animal has been regulated successfully for at least three months.
Trauma

Treatment

Treatment for canine cataracts consists of surgical removal of the lens. There is currently no good non-surgical treatment for this condition. With the increase in veterinary surgical skill and equipment, the surgical procedure to remove the problem lens is becoming increasingly more common. There are several different techniques used to remove the affected lens including; the removal of the entire lens and surrounding capsule, the removal of the lens leaving the surrounding capsule, phacoemulsification of the lens, and aspiration and desiccation of the lens. All of these techniques can offer excellent results. For a successful outcome, the affected animal must undergo a thorough examination to determine if it is a good surgical candidate. Diabetic animals that are not regulated, aggressive animals that are difficult to treat daily, or animals in poor or failing health, are not good surgical candidates. If you suspect your dog is developing cataracts, then you should work closely with a veterinary ophthalmologist to take the best and most effective course of treatment for the do


Information About Cerebellar Abiotrophy

Information About Cerebellar Abiotrophy

What is cerebellar abiotrophy?

The cerebellum is the part of the brain that regulates the control and coordination of movement. With this condition, cells in the cerebellum mature normally before birth, but then deteriorate prematurely causing clinical signs associated with poor co-ordination and lack of balance. The Purkinje cells in the cerebellum  are primarily involved; cells in other areas of the brain may also be affected.
CA has been seen in the Australian Kelpie, Gordon Setter, Border Collie, Labrador Retriever, Airedale, English Pointer, Scottish Terrier, Kerry Blue Terrier, Miniature Schnauzer, and other dog breeds. Time of onset varies. In a few breeds, such as the Beagle, Rough Collie, and Miniature Poodle, Purkinje cells begin to die off at or shortly before birth, and pups are born with symptoms or develop symptoms by three to four weeks of age. Most breeds prone to the condition, such as the Kerry Blue Terrier, Border Collie, Australian Kelpie, and Labrador Retriever, begin showing symptoms between six and sixteen weeks of age. In a very few breeds, such as the American Staffordshire Terrier, Old English Sheepdog, Brittany Spaniel, and Gordon Setter, symptoms do not appear until adulthood or even middle age.
In dogs, CA is also usually an autosomal recessive gene, but in a few breeds, such as the English Pointer, the gene is sex-linked.